UHealth - University of Miami Health System

Carolyn Cray, Ph.D.

General Information

Carolyn  Cray, Ph.D.


  • Fax: 305-243-5662
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  • English


  • Associate Director, Acute Phase Protein Laboratory
  • Associate Director, Avian & Wildlife Laboratory
  • Associate Director, Division of Comparative Pathology
  • Clinical Professor of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
  • Professor of Microbiology & Immunology (Secondary Appointment)

Clinical Interests

Clinical interests include clinical pathology and infectious diseases of avian, exotic, and wildlife species. In avian species, diagnostic techniques of aspergillosis, chlamydophilosis, and sarcocystosis and, in rabbit species, Encephalitozoon cuniculi are all major interests. Studies are also ongoing concerning the applications of plasma protein electrophoresis and the acute phase proteins including serum amyloid A of the avian, exotic and wildlife species as well as companion and large animals. The implementation, development, and application of novel clinical pathology tests for unusual species is a primary clinical interest.

Research Interests

Research interests include models of disease especially with infectious agents such as Aspergillus and Encephalitozoon cuniculi.   Many general research studies are closely related to the clinical interests of my laboratory.  In addition to interests in infectious disease, we seek to validate and implement acute phase protein and other biomarker assays in avian,exotic and wildlife species in addition to the more mainstream companion and large animal species. Serum amyloid A, C-reactive protein, and haptoglobin are highly conserved biomarkers that can be exploited across many species lines.


1990 Ph.D.
University of Miami
1986 A.B.
Rollins College


  • N. Stacy, C. Field, L. Staggs, R.A. McLean, B.A. Stacy, J. Keene, D. Cacela, C. Pelton, C. Cray, M. Kelly, S. Holmes, and C.J. Innis. Clinicopathologic findings and mortality risk assessment in live sea turtles assessed during the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Endangered Species Research, 33:25-37, doi: 10:3354/esr00769, 2017.
  • G. Desoubeaux, A. Pantin, R. Peschke, A. Joachim, and C. Cray. Application of Western blot analysis for the diagnosis of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in rabbits: example of a quantitative approach. Parasitology Research, 116:743-750, 2017.
  • S. Sander, P.H. Joyner, C. Cray, D.S. Rotstein, and C. Aitken-Palmer. Acute phase proteins as a marker of inflammation in a Przewalski’s horse (Equus ferus przewalski). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 47(2)654-658, 2016.
  • M. Hyatt, C.L. Field, T.M. Clauss, K.L. Arheart, C. Cray. Plasma protein electrophoresis and select acute phase proteins in healthy bonnethead sharks (Sphyrna tiburo) managed under human care. Journal of Zoo & Wildlife Medicine, 47(4):984-992, 2016.
  • E. F. Christiansen, C. Cray, G. Lewbart, and C. Harms. Plasma protein electrophoresis and acute phase proteins in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) following exploratory celiotomy. Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine, 24:76-83, 2015.
  • M. Ravich, C. Johnson-Delaney, S. Kelleher, L. Hess, K.L. Arheart, and C. Cray. Quantitation of acute phase proteins and protein electrophoresis fractions in ferrets. Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine, 24(2):201-208, 2015.
  • C. Cray. Reference intervals in avian and exotic hematology. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice. 18:105-116, 2015.
  • J. Hausmann, C. Cray, and B.K. Hartup. Comparison of serum protein electrophoresis among wild and captive whooping cranes (Grus Americana). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 29(3):192-199, 2015.
  • S. Berger Baldotto, C. Cray, A. Turner Giannico, L. Reifur, F. Montiani-Ferreira. Seroprevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in pet rabbits in Brazil. Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine, 24:435-440, 2015.
  • L. Rayhel, C. Aitken-Palmer, P. Joyner, C. Cray, C. Lizarraga, B. Ackerman, and C. Crowe. Hematology and chemistry of the captive white-naped crane (Grus vipio). J Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 46(4):747-754, 2015.
  • K. Delk, R.F. Wack, A. Burgdorf-Moisuk, P.H. Kass, and C. Cray. Acute phase protein and protein electrophoresis values for captive American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 46(4):929-933, 2015.
  • S. Clubb, J. Velez, M.M. Garner, J. Zaias, and C. Cray. Health and reproductive assessment of selected Puerto Rican parrots (Amazona vittata) in captivity. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 90(4):313-325, 2015.
  • M.C. Allender, R.E. Junge, and C. Cray. Plasma electrophoretic profiles of the eastern massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus) and influences of age, sex, year, location, and snake fungal disease. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 46(4):767-773, 2015.
  • C. Cray, M. Rodriguez, C. Field, A. McDermott, L. Leppert, T. Clauss, and G.D. Bossart. Protein and cholesterol electrophoresis of plasma samples from captive cownose ray (Rhinoptera bonasus). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 27(6):688-695.
  • C. Cray, E. Perritt, S. McKenny, K. Arheart. Utility of IgM titers with IgG and CRP quantitation in the diagnosis of suspected Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in rabbits. Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine, 24:256-260, 2015.
  • M. Dickey, C. Cray, T. Norton, M. Murray, C. Barysauskas, K.L. Arheart, S. Nelson, and M. Rodriguez. Assessment of hemoglobin binding protein in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) undergoing rehabilitation. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 45(3):700-703, 2014.
  • H. Beaufrere, C. Cray, M. Ammersbach, and T. Tully. Plasma cholesterol differences mirror interspecies differences in atherosclerosis prevalence in psittaciforms. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 28(3):225-231, 2014.
  • C. Cray and Y. Rivas. Serological survey for antibody to Encephalitozoon cuniculi in dogs in the United States. <i>Journal of Parasitology</i>,99(1):153-154, 2013.
  • H. Beaufrere, J. Nevarez, N. Wakamatsu, S. Clubb, C. Cray, and T. Tully. Experimental diet-induced atherosclerosis in Quaker parrots (Myiopsitta monachus);Veterinary Pathology,50(6):1116-1126, 2013.
  • C. Cray. Acute phase proteins in animals. Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science, 105:113-150, 2012.
  • C. Cray, M. Rodriguez, and Y. Fernandez. Acute phase protein levels in rabbits with suspected Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection. Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine, 22:280-286, 2013
  • C. Cray, M. Rodriguez, M. Dickey, L. Brinson Brewer, and K.L. Arheart. Assessment of serum amyloid A levels in the rehabilitation setting in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 44(4):909-915, 2013.
  • C. Cray, E. Hammond, and H. Haefele. Acute phase protein and protein electrophoresis values for captive Grant’s zebra (Equus burchelli). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 44(4):1105-1108, 2013
  • C. Cray. Biomarkers of inflammation in exotic pets. Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine, 22:245-250, 2013.
  • J.J. Stanton, C. Cray, M. Rodriguez, K.L. Arheart, P.D. Ling, and A. Herron. Acute phase protein expression during elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus-1 viremia in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). J Zoo Wildl Med, 44(3):605-612, 2013
  • F. Tang, S. Messinger, and C. Cray. Use of the indirect sampling method to produce reference intervals for hematology and chemistry analyses in samples from psittaciforms. J Av Med Surg, 27(3):194-203, 2013.


Dr. Carolyn Cray was awarded her Ph.D. in Microbiology & Immunology from the University of Miami and subsequently joined the Division of Comparative Pathology in the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at the Miller School of Medicine.  She currently is ranked as a Professor of Clinical Pathology with an adjunct appointment in the Department of Microbiology & Immunology. 

Dr. Cray is the Associate Director of the Divison of Comparative Pathology which hosts two outreach veterinary laboratories as well as providing pathology expertise to researchers as a function of our core laboratory service to the university.  The Avian & Wildife Laboratory was formed in 1993 and provides clinical pathology test services to veterinarians across the United States.  Both routine and novel test services are used by veterinarians in private practice, universities, rehabilitation centers, zoological institutions, and aquaria.  In 2010, the Acute Phase Protein Laboratory was formed to provide the first venue for acute phase protein testing in animal species in the United States.  More information about both laboratories can be seen at www.cpl.med.miami.edu

In addition to her active clinical reseach interests, Dr. Cray works with pre-vet undergraduate students and other graduate students with projects related to our laboratory interests.  She has published over 120 articles and book chapters and over 120 abstracts.